Types of Questions in Reading Comprehension

 It’s long time since the last post talking about reading, for reading theme, I’ve written you the cognitive factor of reading,  example of reading strategy, and purpose of reading. To make it clear of what i would say, listen carefully what i wrote as follow: 

Learning reading is not a difficult thing if you would study it hardly. When you are teaching reading, what question you used to test your student?, there are so many types of question on reading. According to Djiwandono (2002:97), the questions in reading comprehension tests are about: 

a. Tone & Style 

Tone questions ask you to identify the attitude or mood of a specific part of the passage or of the entire passage. A common characteristic of this question type is answer choices that are marked by one to three word phrases containing adjectives. Tone questions test your ability to recognize an attitude or disposition of the author, which is signaled by the use of a handful of trigger words. Never base your guess about the author's tone on a single word--this is not enough to define the tone of the entire passage. Tone questions tend to be among the more infrequent question types. 

b. Passage Structure 

Passage structure questions ask you to determine the relationship between different parts of a passage. The key to this question type understands the relationship between each idea and paragraph. You must be able to separate ideas that support a thesis from the thesis idea itself. These questions are referred to by some as logical structure questions. 

c. Logical Reasoning 

Logical reasoning questions ask the students to take information outside the passage and reason about how it will influence a point or sentence in the passage. The most common questions in this genre are those that ask which pieces of information will strengthen or weaken a point in the passage. 

In some ways, these questions are similar to application questions in that both require you to understand the thesis of the passage (if one exists) and the relationship between ideas in the passage. However, logical reasoning questions ask you to take outside information and apply it to the ideas in the passage (commonly to strengthen or weaken a point in the passage). However, application questions ask you to take the information in the passage and apply it to an argument or action outside the passage. 

d. Application 

Application questions ask the students to take information and conclusions in the passage and extrapolate them to similar situations or ideas. The key to this question type is the ability to identify the crux of an argument and see how it relates to a similar situation. 

e. Main Idea 

Main idea questions ask the students to identify the "primary purpose" or "main point" of the passage. In order to answer these questions correctly, the students must be able to identify the thesis of the passage and those ideas that support this thesis. 

f. Supporting Idea 

Supporting idea questions are often prefaced by "according to the passage" or "the passage states that". Most of the questions that fit into this category could be called "find the fact" as they rely on your ability to find a specific piece of information, often contained in two or three sentences. 

These questions tend to be more difficult than main idea questions because they require a more detailed recollection of the test. If necessary, you can return to the text and quickly re-read a few sentences. 

Unlike main idea questions which are more generic in their question stem, these questions tend to incorporate an idea specific to the passage in the question stem. 

g. Inference 

Inference questions are often prefaced by "the passage implies" or "the author implies", where "suggests" is sometimes substituted. 

In some ways, inference and supporting idea questions are similar. They both require you to stick closely to the text and rely on specific facts. However, inference questions tend to go a tad further and ask you to make a very small logical conclusion that is strongly implied based upon information in the passage. Answer choices that require significant assumptions or inferences will never be correct. In inference questions, the answer lies directly in the text and requires a very small logical step (e.g., if the text says that "all the cups in the room are red", an inference would be that "there are no green cups in the room"). 

In other ways, inference and application questions are similar. They both require you to draw a conclusion, albeit a very small one, based upon what the passage states explicitly. However, the inference question type asks for an answer that is often a near paraphrase of a fact in the passage or a fact that the information in the passage rules out (e.g., if a species of an animal has existed for 1 million years, you can infer that the animal is not new to the earth). On the contrary, the application question type asks you to use the information in the passage as premises and draw a conclusion that is not directly addressed in the passage. In other words, the answer to inference questions is a conclusion made in the passage while the answer to application questions is a conclusion that is applied outside of the passage to an idea or action.

List of English Irregular Verb

After talking about context clues, it may be obsolete but i think this post is useful for beginner learning about grammar. In previous post I've talked about classification of verb, now still talking about verb. When we talk about verb, there is three kinds of verb in general. first is regular, then infinitive verb and the last is irregular verb. Here, I want to share you the list of English Irregular verb.

Here is the example of English irregular verb and its Change. You can add the meaning in your own language.

   No  Ver1/ present                 verb 2/ past                        verb 3/ perfect

  1. be ( is/am/are)                             was,                             were been
  2. become                                          became                      become
  3. begin                                             began                         begun
  4. blow                                              blew                             blown
  5. break                                            broke                           broken
  6. bring                                             brought                      brought
  7. build                                            built                             built
  8. buy                                              bought                         bought
  9. catch                                           caught                      caught
  10. choose                                        chose                           chosen
  11. come                                           came                          come
  12. cut                                              cut                                cut
  13. do                                               did                              done
  14. drink                                          drank                         drunk
  15. drive                                          drove                           driven
  16. eat                                               ate                              eaten
  17. fall                                               fell                             fallen
  18. feel                                             felt                               felt
  19. fight                                           fought                          fought
  20. find                                            found                            found
  21. fly                                               flew                                flown
  22. forget                                        forgot                             forgotten
  23. get                                             got                                  gotten
  24. give                                           gave                               given
  25. go                                              went                               gone
  26. grow                                         grew                               grown
  27. have                                          had                                had
  28. hear                                          heard                             heard
  29. hit                                            hit                                   hit
  30. hurt                                         hurt                                hurt
  31. keep                                        kept                               kept
  32. know                                        knew                              known
  33. learn                                       learn                             learn
  34. leave                                       left                                  left
  35. lose                                          lost                                 lost
  36. make                                      made                              made
  37. meet                                       met                                 met
  38. pay                                         paid                              paid
  39. read                                        read                              read
  40. ride                                        rode                                ridden
  41. run                                        ran                                 run
  42. spend                                  spent                               spent
  43. see                                         saw                                 seen
  44. sell                                        sold                                sold
  45. send                                   sent                                      sent
  46. sing                                   sang                                    sung
  47. sit                                      sat                                           sat
  48. sleep                                  slept                                     slept
  49. speak                                 spoke                                  spoken
  50. stand                                 stood                                       stood
  51. steal                                   stole                                       stolen
  52. swim                                  swam                                      swum
  53. take                                        took                                    taken
  54. teach                                  taught                                  taught
  55. tell                                     told t                                         old
  56. understand                      understood                            understood
  57. wake                                 woke                                        woken
  58. wear                                 wore                                          worn
  59. win                                   won                                          won
  60. write                                 wrote                                      written

The symptoms of mental disorders

Mental health problems are often expressed by a number of terms such as stress, depression or anxiety. mental disorder or mental illness can be expressed in a several ways, especially for what i write here. There are some mental disorder symptoms you need to know and should not be ignored. Because, if you let it, treatment will probably become more severe. Here are six associated symptoms of mental health problems that you should not be ignored.

#  Headache

Often the stress and tension can trigger headaches. If you have a headache, but on the other hand being dealt under great stress or anxiety, seek immediate professional help from people. Learn some techniques in dealing with stress can significantly relieve symptoms of headache.

# Changes in mood (mood)

Mood changes occur very quickly is a symptom of mental health problems that need to be addressed. Mood swings are very extreme, from very happy to be depressed and keep repeating, it could be the beginning of the development of bipolar disorder. Although bipolar including psychiatric disorders are chronic, potentially serious and often fatal, these disorders can be controlled.
# Too much sleep

Sleep is very important to manage emotions of one's soul. But if someone is sleeping too long, it can actually be a symptom of depression and other medical problems. If you sleep more than 8 hours through the night but did not feel like resting, this condition immediately consult with your doctor.
# Not getting enough sleep
Trouble sleeping or feel like it has not rested when you wake up is also a common symptom of depression and anxiety problems. Lack of sleep can be associated with the problem of sleep disorder called sleep apnea and hormone imbalance. Do not delay to speak with a medical professional if you do not have time to sleep.

#  Heart beat faster

Immediately talk to your doctor or medical personnel if you feel like having a heart attack. An irregular heartbeat can also be the beginning of a panic attack. Panic attack or panic attack is a feeling of terror that came to attack suddenly without warning. A panic attack typically lasts several minutes and is a stressful condition that can be experienced by someone.
# Abdominal pain
Abdominal pain may be a symptom of stress or anxiety. Do not ignore abdominal pain that lasts longer. Many cases show that patients who experience chronic anxiety disorder is generally accompanied by stomach problems. When a person cope with the symptoms of anxiety, stomach pain problems usually also gradually improved or disappeared completely.

by : kompasiana

tag : mental disorder, mental illness, mental health, causes of mental disorder, characteristic of mental heatlh, characteristic of mental disorder

Advantages of Making Inferences in Reading

                   Reading is one of some important English skills. Reading is such important in our life, in previous post I’ve said about teaching reading, improving reading skill through context and cognitive factor in reading. Now, I’ll talk about the positive impact or the advantages of making inference. To go through the reading text automatically we have to know one by one the words and we have to catch what the writer want to say in his writing. Inference is one of reading strategy. Why is it important to make inference in reading activity? The reason is because inferring is such an important part of skilled reading, explicitly teaching and reinforcing the skill can reap several benefits. Often, successful inferring supports and extends other reading goals. The teachers in the literacy study group identified four primary positive outcomes they have seen when students learn to make inferences effectively:

  • Successful inferring leads to better overall comprehension.

When students can make inferences accurately, they are able to grasp the author’s meaning and understand “the whole picture” of a text. Rather than simply decoding words, they can recognize an implication and draw it to its logical conclusion, resulting in fewer gaps in comprehension.

  • Successful inferring leads to more engagement with text.

Students who infer habitually and accurately are more engaged in the text. Not only do they understand better, they enjoy reading more because they are able to easily draw on information from their own lives and prior knowledge. This helps them better identify with characters and relate to literature. Furthermore, when students make inferences such as predictions or theories, they are eager to read more, to see if their intuition will be confirmed.
  • Successful inferring makes sophisticated readers.

Making inferences focuses students on looking beyond the events of a story and the text on the page. This “global view” can help can help students understand literary concepts such as character, theme, and figurative language.

  • Successful inferring helps students be metacognitive.

In teaching students to infer, teachers can help students think about their own thinking—how to apply their background knowledge and experience to draw reasonable conclusions in specific situations. As students learn to consciously apply this process, it becomes a tool they can use deliberately and methodically whenever they feel as if they are “missing something” in their independent reading.

  • Challenges in Teaching Inferring

Despite all these benefits, however, teaching students to infer is an elusive art which presents unique dilemmas. As the study group progressed, teachers identified common challenges they face in working with inferences. These challenges, and the teachers’ creative solutions to them, appear as a common thread throughout both the case studies and the study guide.

Using Example Clues

Finally i've got to the last material of context clues. It's too boring when I write this topic for someday. but finally it's the last. After I write the four types of context clues, they are synonym and definition, comparison and contras, general sense, and clues from another sentence. Now i share you the example clues, just like the previous post i have the example of sentence, hint, how to find, and another example of sentences.  owh.. i almost forget, when you talk about context clues, you may look the pointer of context clues.   ok lest back to what i want to share, using example clues.. here it is...

Using Example clue

a. Description

Sometimes a sentence will provide an example that will help us understand the meaning of the word. Authors sometimes provide specific examples to illustrate or explain the meaning of a word.

b. Example clue often signaled by:

like, for instance, this, such as, especially, these, for example other, includes.

c. Hint:

Look for context key words –such as, and other, like, & for example.

d. Example of sentence

My science fair project is a study of acoustics that includes vibrating tuning forks and violin strings.

Step to use example clue

1) Identify the unfamiliar word.

(we are not sure what the word acoustics means.)

2) Read to see if there is a word that signals that an example may follow.

(we see the word includes. That could lead to an example.)

3) Find the example or examples.

(The words vibrating tuning forks and violin strings follow the word includes. These must be examples of acoustics.)

4) Ask ourselves how the example or examples relate to the unfamiliar word.

(These examples each produce sounds or musical tones.)

5) Use this information to figure out what the word means.

(Since the examples produce sounds, acoustics must have something to do with the study of sound or music.)

acoustics: the scientific study of sound

e. Other Example sentence

 Many Americans include too many servings of potatoes, rice, pasta, bread, and other carbohydrates in their diet.

[Potatoes, rice, pasta, and bread are given as examples of carbohydrates. What they have in common is that they are all starches. Therefore, carbohydrates refers to “starchy foods.” Although this is not the technical, scientific definition of carbohydrates, it is enough to allow us to comprehend the general meaning and keep reading.]

Using Clues from Another Sentence

The next topic is Clue from aother sentence, just to restate, I've explored one by one the types of context clues. I've explain the characteristic and how to use  synonym and definiton clues, comparison and contrast clue,  and General sense clues. Beside i write the advantages and disadvantages, i also write the pointer of using context clues... here you can find anything about context clues. OK, let's back to our topic. The net types of context clues is Clues of Another Sentence... let's check it out.

Using clues from Another Sentence

a. Description

Sometimes a sentence will provide a general sense clue that will help you understand the meaning of the word. Sometimes authors include information in another sentence in the paragraph that allows you to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word. The other sentence can come before or after the one with the unknown word, so it is a good idea to keep reading when you encounter an unfamiliar word.

b. Hints

look at the other sentence or other word surrounding, it is usually in the same word class.

Look at the following example:

In the first sentence, there are no context clues as to the meaning of the word ribald. The sentence that follows it, however, contains a helpful clue.

That comedian has a ribald sense of humor. Two television networks have canceled his show because viewers complained about his lewd language and vulgar jokes.

[From the second sentence, we can conclude that ribald means vulgar, coarse, or off-color. The clue is that many viewers complained about his lewd language and his vulgar jokes.]

c. Other clues from Another Sentence example

Look the sentences below:

What started out as a little rain began to turn into a big problem. The sky began to turn dark green, and lightning and thunder started crashing all around the mountains. The wind was fiercely tearing at the leaves in the trees so hard that branches started to crack and fall. Then the rain turned to hail. That’s when the boys knew they had to find better shelter from the storm.

The word fiercely is the unfamiliar word.

d. Steps to figure out the meaning

1) Identify the word

(Look at the word its self, ended by ly so it means that the word is an adverb showing how the wind passing)

2) Look for the clue from another sentence

(words that are bold and not underlined are the clue. They are big problem, crashing, so hard and tearing)

3) Connect the clue to the unfamiliar word
(the clue seems like shows or indicates something sound really bad and try some guessing)

4) Infer the meaning of unfamiliar by match it to the related clue and context

(try to define the unfamiliar word using our background knowledge)

Fiercely : looks horrifying.

the nature of possesive girl

characteristics of over possessive girl. There a lot in this world of human character. there is a cocky, good, protective and so forth. especially women, have a good character, haughty, arrogant and of course the possessive. possessive girl face is not easy. I describe some of the following properties are usually owned by a girl who has a character possessive.
  1.   has an excess of love.
for example when you're far from your girl. Your phone will continue ringing and with questions, where, what are you doing and with whom. but do not be hasty to be angry with my friend responded. it is done because your girl will worry about your existence. 

     2practically very difficult to believe.

people who have character possessive usually not easy to believe. especially when you having history of love is not much fun. or you have dozens of ex-girlfriend. usually, girl having possessive nature .. will always be suspicious when you have a good relationship and with friends, or with your girlfriend. even if only as a friend but in touch with ex-boyfriend will make your girlfriend feel uncomfortable.

people who having possessive nature will do anything to be with you. so for my friend who has a boyfriend and with the nature of this type. I suggest do not be too serious about it all.
 people who having possessive nature will do anything to be with you. so for my friend who has a boyfriend and with the nature of this type. I suggest do not be too serious about it all.

   4.   seemed to have no sense of boredom
possessive girl, as if not having a sense of boredom together. even if you have a day with him, she will not just satisfied. her still going to feel less. her still would feel like to hold together. as though nothing is more important than you in this world. but that's the way her gives her affection to you, .. maybe if it being prosentated, if your love 60% then she will give 110%.

  5.   impatient
and with this type of girl. similar to that of a perfectionist. she will remember all the promises you are saying. and when you are late, fulfill that promise. then she would easily get angry, you lash or even rage.
   6.  temperamental
and with this type of girl, belonging to the girl who is very easy to be angry, that no matter how small, could be a big fight between you and her.

I think that's a the girl character who has possessive nature.


Genius Man in Mind Mapping

Apparently, the geniuses also did not miss using a mind map. Instead they are average people who like to use this mapping technique to illustrate their thoughts.
Da Vinci
Just Call one of them is Leonardo da Vinci, a master of painting from Italy. If you've read the book Dan Brown's "Da Vinci Code", then you would have guessed how clever Leonardo. Besides being known as a master painter, he is also famous as an architect, engineer, and scientist. With his marvelous and love of learning, he has presented himself as a renaissance man. He is the greatest example of a creative genius who uses visual language to capture his thoughts. Because of this, note books of Leonardo da Vinci is the most valuable books in the world, because in it there is a lot of pictures, diagrams, symbols, and illustrations which he uses to capture the mind-thoughts that have sprung up in his brain and pour it out on paper . All you need to know, the pictures helped Leonardo to explore his mind in various fields, art, physiology, engineering, akuanautik, and biology. 

albert einstein
Another geniuses is Albert Einstein. He was considered as genius of the 20th century, even considered as the most genius that ever existed in history. Like Leonardo, Einstein was the one who believes that imagination is more important than any tool. See what he says,
"I really was the artist who drew freely on the imagination. Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited, whereas imagination was the one who makes the world go round." 

Thomas alfa edison
Another example Thomas Alfa Edison. He was known as the inventor of the Most out of copyright, more than a thousand inventions of his copyright have written off He was a genius inventor who had invented the light bulb. Although have once considered as a foolish child in elementary school, but he was able to prove that have able to do creative things that made him who did not easily give up by anything.

tag : geniuses man using mind mapping,. mind mapping for geniuses men, mind mappingusing mind mapping, the successful in mind mapping, mind map for geniuses.

Using Comparison or Contrast Clue

Still talking with Context clues, after i Read you General Sense clues and Synonym and Definition clues, now i write you the next types of context clues. Comparison and Contrast clues is one of Context Clues types which is often signaled by Like, similar to, but, although, as, also, unlike, however, related, resembling, rather than, on the other hand.  for more explanation of comparison and contrast clues, just read it below.....

Using Comparison or Contrast Clue

a. Description

Sometimes a sentence will provide a comparison or a contrast that will help you understand the meaning of the word. Sometimes an unusual word is followed by an antonym that can help the reader figure out what the unusual word means

b. Comparison and Contrast of signaled by :

Like, similar to, but, although, as, also, unlike, however, related, resembling, rather than, on the other hand.

c. Hint:

Look for context key words –but, not, although, however, on the other hand, in contrast, & instead and other signal word

d. Example of sentence

She was often as truculent as a quarrelsome child; on the other hand, she could be gentle and helpful.

1) Identify the unfamiliar word.

(we not sure what the word truculent means.)

2) Read to see if there is a word or phrase that signals that a comparison or a contrast may follow.

(we see the word as and the phrase on the other hand. As could signal a comparison, and on the other hand could signal a contrast.)

3) Identify the comparison or contrast.

(The sentence compares the girl with a quarrelsome child, but it also says that she can be gentle and helpful.)

4) Use this information to figure out what the unfamiliar word means.

(Since the comparison is with someone who is quarrelsome and the contrast is with helpfulness, we could think that truculent means “quarrelsome” and “unhelpful.”)

truculent: ready to fight or quarrel

e. Other Comparison and Contrast example  

A few advertisers are unscrupulous, but most are honest.

[Unscrupulous advertisers are contrasted with honest advertisers, so we can reason out that unscrupulous is the opposite of honest. Therefore, unscrupulous means dishonest or not following ethical principles.]

Using Definition and Synonym clue

I've talked how to use general sense clue, now i'm going to the next type. Synonym and Definition Clue, It is one of context clues types. It usually appear become the most simple types or the easiest types of context clues. here i write the example of synonym and definition, the hint, mark and description.

Using Definition and Synonym clue

a. description

Sometimes a writer will restate the meaning or give the synonym of a difficult word within a sentence, defining it for us. Sometimes when the author uses an unusual word, the writer provides a definition for that word in the text and after some unusual words; authors sometimes use a more common synonym for that word.

Sometimes the writer will save us the trouble of looking up a word by defining it for us. Underline the words in the following sentences that signal us that some sort of a definition is going to follow. Often this kind of definition will not sound much like a dictionary definition.

b. Definitions and Synonym are often signaled by:

or, which is, that is, also called, also known as, in other words.

c. Hint

When the unusual word is followed by a comma, the definition may be right after that comma and if the unusual word is followed by a comma and the word “or,” then the words that follow are likely synonyms. The restatement or explanation may be in a different sentence. Read the sentences before and after the unusual word.

d. Example of sentence

I can be quite irascible; that is, it doesn’t take much to make me angry.

1) Identify the unfamiliar word.

(we are not sure what the word irascible means.)

2) Read to see if there is a signal word.

(we see the phrase that is. What follows may include a restatement or definition.)

3) Find the restated information.

(The word that is point to the clause it does not take much to make me angry.)

4) Use this information to figure out what the unfamiliar word means.
(Because the words that is point to a clause about getting angry easily, we can guess the meaning that irascible must mean “easily angered.”)

  irascible: prone to outbursts of temper, easily angered
 e. Other Synonym and Definition example

1) Deceptive advertising is defined as any ad that contains a misrepresentation, omission, or other practice that can mislead a significant number of reasonable consumers to their detriment.

[The term is in bold print; the definition follows the phrase is defined as.]

2) An important aspect of tort law involves product liability—businesses’ legal responsibility for any negligence in the design, production, sale, and consumption of products.

(The term is in bold print; the definition follows a dash.]

3) Virtually every business transaction is carried out by means of a contract, a mutual agreement between two or more parties that can be enforced in a court if one party chooses not to comply with the terms of the contract.

[The term is in bold print; the definition follows a comma.]

4) As late as the early 19th century in England, the death penalty (or capital punishment) was available for about 200 offenses, most of them property crimes.
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