Williem Voice

Classification of Noun

Every kind ofpart of speech has their own characteristic and also its own clasification. among of part of speech are verb, adjective and also noun. the classification of noun itself depend on what theory you take. here i share you clasification of NOUN according to Frank Jeremiah.
There are three types of nouns that are available as stated by Frank (1990:6). They are nouns which are classified by meaning, nouns which are classified by form, and words having the form of other parts of speech. The elaborations of three types of nouns are stated as following.
1.      Nouns classified by meaning.
a.       Proper nouns. Proper nouns are names of particular people (Einstein), names of geographic units such as countries, cities, rivers, places, etc. (Holland, Paris, Nile, Borobudur Temple), names of nationalities and religions (Irish, Islam) , names of holidays (Idul Fitri), names of time units (Saturday, October), words used for personification – a thing or abstraction treated as a person (Nature, Liberty). Proper nouns are always written with a capital initial letter. The remainder (bottle, diary, hand, etc.) are classified as common nouns (Burchfield, 2000:11).
b.      Concrete or abstract nouns. A concrete noun is a word for a physical object that can be perceived by the senses (plant, animal). While an abstract noun is a word for a concept. It is an idea that exists in our minds only (beauty, justice).
c.       Countable or uncountable nouns. A countable noun can usually be made plural by the addition of –s at the end of the word. An uncountable noun is not used in plural. Mass nouns form one type of uncountable noun. They are words for concrete objects stated in an undivided quantity (coffee, iron). Abstract nouns (including names of school subjects and sports) are uncountable (physic, swimming).
Some countable nouns may also be used in a countable sense and will therefore have a plural. In the sentence We had chicken for dinner, the words chicken is a mass noun. In There were many chickens in the yard, the word chickens is a countable noun. In addition, an uncountable noun may be used in the plural with the special meaning of kinds of, e.g. Many fruits were displayed at the fair.
d.      Collective nouns. A collective noun is a word for a group of people, animals or objects considered as a single unit. The examples of collective nouns are, audience, committee, class, crew, crowd, enemy, faculty, family, flock, folk, government, group, herd, jury, majority, minority, nation, orchestra, press, public, and team. Collective nouns are countable nouns. They may be used in the plural.
2.      Nouns classified by form: noun compound. The term compound, as it is used for a part of speech, refers to a group of words joined together into one vocabulary unit that functions as a single part of speech. Noun compounds consist of the following composite forms:
a.   Noun + noun – bathroom, department store. This kind of noun compound is most common.
b.  Possessive noun + noun – lady’s maid, traveller’s checks. Sometimes the ‘s is omitted from the first noun – a women’s college, a citizen’s bank.
c.   Adjective + noun – blackbird, blue print. An adjective  + noun compound is usually not hyphenated.
d.        Verb + noun – pickpocket, flashlight.
e.   Noun + verb – handshake, lifeguard.
f.   Gerund + noun – dining room, punching bag.
g.  Noun + gerund – fortune telling, housecleaning.
h.  Preposition + noun – overall, downpour.
i.    Verb + preposition-adverb – breakdown, makeup.
j.    Noun + prepositional phrase – son-in-law, editor-in-chief.
An –er may be added to noun compounds containing verbs to indicate “agent” – bystander, baby-sitter, pressure cooker.
3.      Words having the form of other parts of speech.
a.       Adjective forms used as nouns. These nouns are often preceded by the. They take a plural verb when they refer to persons – The rich grow richer and the poor grow poorer. Adjectives of nationality are frequently used, especially adjectives ending in -ch, -sh, or -ese – the French, the Irish, the Chinese. Adjectives of nationality that end in –an are also used as nouns, but they have a regular plural with -s (Americans, Italians). The addition of -man or -men to adjectives of nationality changes them to regular nouns that may be singular or plural – the Frenchmen, an Irishman.
Adjective forms used as nouns may be in comparative form (The richest are not always the happiest), and they may be modified by adverbs (the newly rich, the very poor), or even adjectives (the deprived poor, the arrogant selfish rich).
A few -ed adjectives referring to persons may also be used in the singular – his betrothed, the accused, the deceased.
The adjective form used as a noun may also express an idea (Greek philosophers were searching for the good, the true and the beautiful; the best is still not good enough for him) or a thing (Please buy some margarine for me; the cheapest is good enough).
b. Verb forms used as nouns. Swimming is a great sport; Seeing is believing. Such nouns with -ing endings are called gerund. In addition, some words that usually function as adverbs may be used as nouns –from there, by now.
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