The Components of Speaking Ability

As proverb says ‘practice makes perfect’. Therefore, students must practice to speak English as often as possible so that they are able to speak English fluently and accurately. A part of that, to speak English, we have to know some important component. The component is what aspect influencing how well people speak English. Here is the component of speaking skill according to syakur.According to Syakur (1987: 5), speaking is a complex skill because at least it is concerned with components of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and fluency.

1) Grammar

It is needed for students to arrange a correct sentence in conversation. It is in line with explanation suggested by Heaton (1978: 5) that student’s ability to manipulate structure and to distinguish appropriate grammatical form in appropriate one. The utility of grammar is also to learn the correct way to gain expertise in a language in oral and written form.

2) Vocabulary

Vocabulary means the appropriate diction which is used in communication. Without having a sufficient vocabulary, one cannot communicate effectively or express their ideas in both oral and written form. Having limited vocabulary is also a barrier that precludes learners from learning a language. Language teachers, therefore should process considerable knowledge on how to manage an interesting classroom so that the learners can gain a great success in their vocabulary learning. Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.

3) Pronunciation

Pronunciation is the way for students’ to produce clearer language when they speak. It deals with the phonological process that refers to the components of a grammar made up of the elements and principles that determine how sounds vary and pattern in a language. There are two features of pronunciation; phonemes and supra segmental features. A speaker who constantly mispronounces a range of phonemes can be extremely difficult for a speaker from another language community to understand (Gerard, 2000:11).

4) Fluency

Fluency can be defined as the ability to speak fluently and accurately. Fluency in speaking is the aim of many language learners. Signs of fluency include a reasonably fast speed of speaking and only a small number of pauses and “ums” or “ers”. These signs indicate that the speaker does not have to spend a lot of time searching for the language items needed to express the message (Brown. 1997: 4).
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