Diet and Children IQ



It’s long time since the last I wrote about health. It was really buzy in lebaran day (ied mubarak). After continues to what I want to share, I would like to say Eid Mubarak for mankind all over the world. I beg you to sorry all of my mistakes. Ok, let’s go to what I share, I’m going to talk about the relation between diet and children IQ. Enjoy it.
ScienceDaily (August 7, 2012) - Children who were fed with a healthy diet from an early age may have a slightly higher IQ, while those of his diet full of junk food may experience a slight decline in IQ, according to latest research results from University of Adelaide.
Study led by Dr Lisa Smithers of Public Health University of Adelaide is, analyzing the relationship between the diet of children at age 6 months, 15 months and 2 years, as well as their IQ at 8 years old.
The study, followed by more than 7,000 children compared a number of diets, including traditional and contemporary food cooked at home, babies meals ready to eat, breastfeeding, and 'free' or junk food.
"Diet provides the necessary nutrients for the development of brain networks in the first two years of life, and the purpose of this study is to see what impact provided by the diet on children's IQ," said Dr. Smithers.
"We found that children who were breastfed at 6 months and has a regular healthy diet includes foods such as legumes, fruits and vegetables at the age of 15 and 24 months it has an IQ two points higher when they were 8 years old.
"Children who diet regularly includes biscuits, chocolates, sweets, soft drinks and chips in the first two years of his life, has a 2 point lower IQ at age 8 years. We also found some negative effects on the IQ of babies ready to eat food that is given at age 6 months, but we also found a positive relationship when food is given at 24 months, "said Dr. Smithers.
Dr Smithers said the study reinforces the need to provide children with healthy foods in times of formation of a critical point in their lives.
"Despite the difference in IQ was not great, but this study provides some of the strongest current evidence that diets ranging from 24 months it has a small but significant effect on IQ at age 8 years," said Dr. Smithers.
"It's important for us to consider the impact that is longer than the foods that we give to our children," he said.
The results of this study have been published online in the European Journal of Epidemiology.

 

GRAND MOM the greatest women ever


It start when eko, my cousin and I stay in my grand ma house. It was suprise to see, watch, observe and marks what my grand ma done. She's a great picture of human being.
 
 

Problem and solution of speaking activities

Hello, meet me again still in speaking theme. Somehow i was excited in speaking English, it's why i like to write all about speaking. to speak English fluently, it was my purpose. I've share you the characteristic of speaking class, component of speaking ability, activities promote speaking,  and the important aspect in improving speaking skill. and now, my title is problem and solution of speaking activities. Speaking activities can fail miserably due to some very real problems in the English class. According to Ur (1996: 121), there are some problems faced by the learners in speaking activities. The problems include student inhibition, nothing to say, the low of participation, the theme to be spoken, and the use of mother tongue. But I would like to tell you not only the problem but also how to fix it. How to solve speaking problem. It won’t complete when I talk the problem without the solution. I’ll give you the solution of speaking problem also. So, don’t worry.  These problems can be explained as follows: 

                            Common Speaking Problem
1. Student inhibition
Speaking activities require a student to have all eyes on him and exposure to an audience can often give students stage fright. They may also be worried about making mistakes, being criticized or losing face in front of the rest of the class.
2. Nothing to say
Another common problem is that students sometimes think they have nothing to say on a particular topic. In reality, they may be bored or feel that the topic is unrelated to anything they know. If this is the case, they will have no motivation to speak other than the fact that they know they should be participating in the speaking activity. Students often lack confidence in their speaking ability and feel they have insufficient language skills to express exactly what they want to say.
3. The low of participation
There will always be dominant students in an English class making it difficult for more reserved students to express themselves freely. Dominant students who interrupt frequently or who constantly look for the teacher's attention tend to create an environment in the ESL class where more timid students are quite happy to sit back and watch the lesson unfolding instead of participating.
4. Mother-tongue use
Students who insist on using their mother tongue are students who are fearful of criticism and need to be encouraged to speak English. Students must understand that they cannot revert to their mother tongue as this will take away precious speaking practice time during lessons and slow down oral progress.
                            Solutions of Speaking Activity Problems

Teaching English as a second language means being able to solve problems students may have in acquiring certain language skills. There are a number of resources and activities available to get round these common speaking problems:

a. Group work:
Group work increases the amount of time available for oral practice and allows more than one student to benefit from speaking time. Working in groups also lowers the inhibitions of shy students who are not comfortable speaking in front of the whole class.
b. Easy language:
Simple language makes it easier for students to speak for longer without hesitation and gives them a sense of accomplishment. Essential vocabulary can be pre-taught or reviewed before the activity enabling students to fill-out their speech with more interesting sentences and rich language.
c. Interesting topic:
Choosing a topic according to the interests of the class ensures student motivation. If the material and task instructions are presented clearly and enthusiastically students will be more likely to meet the challenge set for them.
d. Clear guidelines:
Stating clearly what is expected from each student is essential in ensuring that everyone in the group contributes towards the discussion. Appointing a chairperson to each group to regulate participation is a way to make sure that dominant students leave discussion opportunities open to more reserved students. Feedback reveals the results of the discussion and motivates each student to follow the guidelines.
e. English monitors:
A monitor can be appointed to each group to remind students speaking their mother tongue to switch back to English. A lack of classroom management and discipline will encourage students, who do not feel that there is resistance to their mother tongue, to easily revert back to it as soon as they have problems expressing themselves.

 

Activities promoting speaking skills

 Teaching speaking, in my opinion, is the way for students to express their emotions, communicative needs, interact to other person in any situation, and influence the others. For this reason, in teaching speaking skill it is necessary to have clear understanding involved in speech. Before go to the next post, here are some article which I wrote about speaking.

To make students fluency in speaking English, they must regard English as matter of habit. Therefore, they must have appropriate activities. Here are some activities which can help student to be great in speaking English.

Kayi (2006: 2) states that there are some activities to promote speaking. They are explained as follows:

1) Discussion
 The students may aim to arrive at a conclusion, share ideas about an event, or find solutions in their discussion groups. Here the teacher can form groups of students and each group works on their topic for a given time period, and present their opinions to the class. Fauziati (2002: 134) states that the main aim of group discussion is to improve fluency, grammar in probably best allowed functioning as a naturally communicative context.

2) Role Play and Simulation
 Role play has appeal for students because it allows the students to be creative and to put themselves in another person’s place for a while (Richard, 2003: 222). While simulation is very similar to role-play but here students can bring items to the class to create a realistic environment. For instance, if a student is acting as a singer, he or she can bring a microphone to sing and so on.

3) Interviews
 Conducting interviews with people gives students a chance to practice their speaking ability not only in class but also outside and helps them becoming socialized. After interviews, each student can present the result to the class.

4) Reporting
 In class, the students are asked to report what they find as the most interest news. Students can also talk about whether they have experienced anything worth telling their friends in their daily lives before class.

5) Prepared Talks
 A popular kind of activity is the prepared talk where a student makes a presentation on a topic. Such talks are not designed for informal spontaneous conversation; because they are prepared, they are more ‘writing-like’ than spoken orally. However, if possible, students should speak from notes rather than from a script (Harmer, 2001: 274)

6) Dialogue
 Dialogue is one of the media in teaching speaking. It helps the students practice in speech, pronunciation, intonation, stress. Dialogue also increases students’ vocabulary. The primary objective of using dialogue is developing student’s competence (pronunciation, intonation, stress) in teaching speaking like native speaker. Therefore, in teaching-learning uses dialogue (short and long), the students are motivated by the teachers question to reason rather than to recollect. Dialogues is two sides communication, it means we just not have to express something but we should have to understand what another peoples said (Podo and Sulaiman, 1995: 25). When we teach young learners we constantly have to keep in mind the fact what he have in front of us is a mixed class with varied abilities, expectations, motivation level, knowledge and last but not least, different learning styles. Thus, we need to vary our approaches and offer as much opportunity as possible to make the whole class find a little something to hold on to, expand and grow (Klancar, 2006).

 

The Components of Speaking Ability


As proverb says ‘practice makes perfect’. Therefore, students must practice to speak English as often as possible so that they are able to speak English fluently and accurately. A part of that, to speak English, we have to know some important component. The component is what aspect influencing how well people speak English. Here is the component of speaking skill according to syakur.According to Syakur (1987: 5), speaking is a complex skill because at least it is concerned with components of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and fluency.

1) Grammar


It is needed for students to arrange a correct sentence in conversation. It is in line with explanation suggested by Heaton (1978: 5) that student’s ability to manipulate structure and to distinguish appropriate grammatical form in appropriate one. The utility of grammar is also to learn the correct way to gain expertise in a language in oral and written form.

2) Vocabulary

Vocabulary means the appropriate diction which is used in communication. Without having a sufficient vocabulary, one cannot communicate effectively or express their ideas in both oral and written form. Having limited vocabulary is also a barrier that precludes learners from learning a language. Language teachers, therefore should process considerable knowledge on how to manage an interesting classroom so that the learners can gain a great success in their vocabulary learning. Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.

3) Pronunciation

Pronunciation is the way for students’ to produce clearer language when they speak. It deals with the phonological process that refers to the components of a grammar made up of the elements and principles that determine how sounds vary and pattern in a language. There are two features of pronunciation; phonemes and supra segmental features. A speaker who constantly mispronounces a range of phonemes can be extremely difficult for a speaker from another language community to understand (Gerard, 2000:11).

4) Fluency

Fluency can be defined as the ability to speak fluently and accurately. Fluency in speaking is the aim of many language learners. Signs of fluency include a reasonably fast speed of speaking and only a small number of pauses and “ums” or “ers”. These signs indicate that the speaker does not have to spend a lot of time searching for the language items needed to express the message (Brown. 1997: 4).
 

Characteristic of Good Speaking Class


sometimes spoken language is easy to perform, but in some cases it is difficult (Brown, 2001: 270). In order that they can carry out the successful speaking, they have to fulfill some characteristics of successful speaking activity such as giving much time or opportunity to the students to speak as often as possible. Allocating as much time as possible to students talking can help create the best environment for oral activities. Other characteristics of successful speaking activities include:

1) making sure that student participation is not dominated by a few talkative students

2) making sure that students want to speak because they are interested in the topic

3) making sure that students have something relevant to say

4) making sure that students can be understood by everyone

5) making sure that there aren't frequent interruptions while a student is speaking

Ur (1996: 120) explains some characteristics of successful speaking activities which include learners talk a lot, participant is even, motivation is high, and language is of an acceptable level. Each characteristic is explained as follows:

1) Learners talk a lot

As much as possible of the period of time allocated to the activity is in fact occupied by learners talk. This may be obvious, but often most time is taken up with teacher’s talk or pauses.

2) Participant is even

Classroom discussion is not dominated by a minority of talk active participants. It means that all students get a chance to speak and contributions are fairly evenly distributed.

3) Motivation is high

Learners are eager to speak because they are interested in the topic and have something new to say about it, or they want to contribute to achieve a task objective.

4) Language is of an acceptable level
Learners express themselves in utterances that are relevant, easy comprehensible to teach others and of acceptable level of language accuracy. Speaking is the ability to use the language in ordinary way by speech. It is not only a matter of transferring some messages to other persons but is also communication, which needs more than one person to communicate with. When people speak, they construct ideas in words, express their perception, their feelings and intentions, so that interlocutors grasp meaning of what the speakers mean. If the learners do not have speaking skill, do not understand the English words that are said by the speaker, do not acknowledge the language, they cannot grasp meaning of what the speaker mean. In that condition, they cannot be said successful in learning English, because they do not have a meaningful interaction of English conversation. Due to it, students who want to speak English well need to learn and practice it as much as possible. As proverb says ‘practice makes perfect’. Therefore, students must practice to speak English as often as possible so that they are able to speak English fluently and accurately.

source
 

Contextual Teaching and Learning definition


Contextual teaching and learning is a model of teaching and learning based on competence. Contextual teaching and learning is a way of giving information in learning from the teachers to the learners and preparing the individual learner in learning. It means that contextual teaching and learning get the students to prepare their individual competence. Contextual teaching and learning can create the quality of educational better.

Definition of Contextual Teaching and Learning

Contextual teaching and learning is a model of teaching and learning based competence that aims to be effective and successful in teaching and learning process. Ben and Erickson (2001: 2) state that contextual teaching and learning is conception of teaching and learning that helps the teacher relating subject matter to real world situation. It motivates the students to make a connection between the knowledge and its application to their lives as a family member, a citizen, and a worker, and it also engages the hard work that learning requires.

Sitinjak (2002: 2) states that contextual teaching and learning is basically a respond to behaviorism approach which emphasizes on the concept of stimulus response of this mechanical drill. To be able to use the language naturally as in the real world life and in the various situations, critical thinking and meaningful learning are needed. When students can relate the lesson got in their school to daily live, they will be aware of the learning benefit.

Mulyasa (2005: 102) states that contextual teaching and learning is a concept of teaching and learning emphasizing on the relation between teaching- learning material and the real world. The students relate and apply the competence of learning outcome on the everyday life. Furthermore, the teacher uses learning material to teach for the students in order to improve their knowledge and to reach the goal of teaching and learning process.

Sagala (2003:87-88) states that contextual teaching and learning is a concept of learning which helps the teacher relating the material and the students’ real world situation, and which motivates the students making a relation between the knowledge possessed and its application on their lives as a member of society. Through the process of applying competence, the students will feel the importance of learning. They will get a deep meaning what they had learnt. Contextual teaching and learning enables the cooling down and interesting process of learning because the teaching and learning can naturally continue in anything situation and the students can directly practice everything they had learnt.

Sitinjak (2002: 2) states that contextual teaching and learning is basically a respond to behaviorism approach which emphasizes on the concept of stimulus response of this mechanical drill. To be able to use the language naturally as in the real world life and in the various situations, critical thinking and meaningful learning are needed. When students can relate the lessons got in their school to daily live, they will be aware of learning benefit; besides, they will realize the importance of going to school.

“The CTL system is an educational process that aims to help students see meaning in the academic material they are studying by connecting academic subjects with the context of their personal, social, and cultural circumstances. To achieve this aim, the system encompasses the following eight components: making meaningful connections, doing significant work, self- regulated learning, collaborating, critical and creative thinking, nurturing the individual, reaching high standards, and using authentic assessments (Sitinjak, 2002: 2).”

Contextual teaching and learning as stated above is a concept of teaching and learning which helps the students connecting the content they are learning to the life context in which that context could be used. Thus, contextual teaching and learning enables the students to use their prior knowledge on solving the problem of learning, and it enriches the students’ existing knowledge.
 

The Trudge: attribute to sweetheart

I wrote it just to show, how i love her. I do believe we're okey as long as we never lost our faith. don't ever look back if you wanna go straight ahead. yesterday is nightmare, so please just forget it.


THE TRUDGE


Look at this wound, which its pain is eternal
Wrapped in the warmth of your arms

I will not forget
I will never be able to think
About what should separate us

When I trudge without you here
I will remain you for this belief

If indeed you are my ribs, ..
You definitely will be back in this body.
I will age and die in your arms
Just for you all this breathing

We have passed it
Sense that ever dies
Not a new thing if you leave me
Without we look for a way to return
For the love that will lead, you come back to me

If you were born just for me
Take my heart and come back soon
I enjoyed yearning, which comes to kill me


I promise
This is the last
I hurt you
This is definitely the last
I left you
I'm not going to waste the rest of your life again...


This is the last
I’m not going to waste the rest of your life again
And just for you my whole breathing 


by: last child and Gisele (tertatih)
 

Component of Contextual Teaching and Learning

I am not talking about context clues or reading comprehension, but I am talking about contextual teaching and learning. what is it?. Using contextual teaching and learning approach in teaching an learning process can apply seven components to create an effective teaching and learning process. Sagala (2003: 88-94) and Sitinjak (2002: 3-8) describe these seven components of contextual teaching and learning as follows:

a) Constructivism
Constructivism is a philosophical thinking of contextual teaching and learning. The knowledge is gradually built up and the result is expanded through narrow and predictable context. The knowledge is not a set of facts, concepts, and norms that is ready to remember but the human constructs the knowledge. Human being gives the meaning through the real experience. The essence of the constructivism theory is the idea that the students must discover and transform complex information to other situation. If they want its information, it becomes theirs. Thus, in contextual teaching and learning, the students construct their own knowledge and experiences, applying the idea to the new situation, and integrating the new knowledge gained with the pre-existing intellectual constructs.

b) Questioning
The knowledge, which is possessed by someone, always begins from questioning. Questioning is the primary strategy of teaching and learning based on contextual approach. Questioning is the useful procedure in teaching and learning process to gain information administratively and academically, the students’ responses, and the other question from the students. The functions of questioning are also to check the students understanding, to know how far the students’ curiosity and what thing known by the students, to focus the students’ attention, and to refresh the students’ knowledge in learning activity. The question can be applied between the student and the student, the teacher and the student, the student and the teacher, also between the student and the other person coming in the class. Thus, questioning process needs to create the contextual approach. Questioning leads to raise a critical thinking and to exchange the way of thinking, and it adds the students’ knowledge.

c) Inquiry
Inquiry is the core of teaching and learning activity using contextual teaching and learning approach. The knowledge and skills got by the students are not only the result of remembering a set of facts, but it is a result of their own discovering. Inquiry circles are discovering, questioning, hypothesis, data collecting, and the conclusion. The key word of inquiry strategy is that students discover something by themselves. Steps in inquiry strategy are formulating the problem in a subject matter, observing or doing observation, analyzing and presenting the result in writing, report, and other work, and presenting their work to others.

d) Learning community
Learning community suggests the result of teaching and learning got from cooperation with other. Learning outcome is got from sharing with friends, groups, and the known student to the unknown student. Inside the class, outside the class, and outside the school are learning community. The teachers are always suggested doing teaching and learning process in the groups of learning. Students are divided in heterogenic groups’ members. The smart student teaches the stupid one; the known student teaches the unknown; the faster learner supports the slower learner, and the conceptor share their idea. Learning community happens if two directions of communications recurrence. Two or more groups involved in teaching and learning communication mutually study in learning community. One involved in learning community activity gives the information needed by her or his learning partner. This mutual learning activity can happen that if no dominate person or group in the communication, no reluctant person or group for questioning, and no all-known person joins the communication. All people are mutual listening; therefore, all people must feel that everyone has the knowledge, the experience or different skills needed to study.

e) Modeling
A model imitated by student is better in teaching the skill and learning the certain knowledge. The model gives the great chance for teacher to give the examples how something works before the students do the duty.

f) Reflection
Reflection is a way of thinking about what something is newly studied, thinking to the back about what we had been done on studying in the past, the students participate what they are newly studied as a new structure of the knowledge. This process is the enrichment and the revision from the previous knowledge. Reflection also responds toward to recurrence, the activity, and the new knowledge being accepted.

Meaningful knowledge got from learning process and the knowledge possessed by students are expected through the teaching and learning context, and those are gradually expanded, so that the meaningful teaching–learning process and the knowledge are increasingly improved. The teachers or the adult people help the students to feel that they get something useful for themselves about what something is newly studied.

g) Authentic Assessment
The assessment is the process of collecting data, which can gives a description of the students’ learning. The description of students’ learning development needs to be known, so the teachers can determine that the students experience the right teaching and learning process. The description of the students’ learning progress is needed during teaching and learning process. After data collected, the teachers identify whether the students are sticking in the learning or not. Then, the teacher takes the right action soon. Finally, the students are free from learning sticking.

Learning process is measured from the process, but the progress of students’ learning is not measured from the result only. Learning process is done in various ways. A test is a form of assessment. The evaluator is not only the teacher but also other friend and other people. The characteristic of authentic assessment contains that authentic assessment is done during and after teaching and learning process. It is used for summative and formative test. The skills and performance are not only measured by remembering the facts, but this assessment also contains a continuous and integrative process. Furthermore, authentic assessment is used as a feedback.
 

Important aspect in Improving Speaking Skills


English is not our language. English is foreign language for Indonesian people. We have to give attention in pronounce that language. Most problems when we learn other language is we got difficulties in pronounce that language. The Indonesian students said that English is very difficult, because the students have no motivation to learn for English. To response the student to learn English, The teacher must have a good strategy in teaching learning process. (Grugeon, 2005:84) said that some aspects to improve student speaking skill students are:

1. Taking opportunities to use talk in the classroom

Talk in the classroom is crucial to learning. It is where answers to puzzling questions can be found. It is where thoughtful argument and discussion make way for the understanding of new skills and difficult concepts. It is where difficult issues, which emerge from the children’s literacy work, their math or science investigations, history or religious education (RE) studies, can be talked through. It is where children listen to and respects the views of each other and where everyone’s learning is empowered by talking about what they have learned. It is where children can be supported in raising their own questions about their learning.

2. Questioning

When teachers speak to children about their work, asking questions is the most commonly used strategy to assess their learning and progress. We can challenge children’s thinking if these questions are ‘kept open’, leading them into other areas of discussion and further questions. Puzzling questions, primarily used to explore interesting scientific questions, can be a really useful assessment opportunity, encouraging children to think independently or individually in an interesting way and to question their learning.

3. Talk partners

This is one of the most successful and easily organized ways of helping students clarify and develop their ideas. Students can simply turn to the person next to them or work with a prearranged partner and talk through their ideas or response to a teacher’s question. This is particularly effective as part of whole-class discussion, whether in shared text time or outside the Literacy Hour, and for helping quieter students to feel that their ideas are valued.
 

SEGMENTAL AND SUPRASEGMENTAL SOUND


SEGMENTAL AND SUPRASEGMENTAL SOUND

Ramelan(2004:22) classifies sounds into segmental and suprasegmentals . He classifies segmental, which refer to sound units arranged in a sequential order, the example above has nine segmental feature, phonetically transcribed in the following way /gud-hεvənz/. He classifies suprasegmentals, which refer to such features as stress, pitch, length intonation, and other features that always accompany the production of segmental.

(Jones,2002:11) classifies sounds into vowels and consonants. He includes diphthongs in the vowel class. He considers length, rhythm, stress and intonation as suprasegmental sounds.

a. Vowels


According to Jones(2002:12) vowel is when the tongue takes up a vowel position, a resonance chamber is formed which modified the quality of produce by the voice, and give rise to a distinct quality or timber. He defines a vowel (in normal speech) as a voiced sound in forming which the air issues in a continuous stream through the pharynx and mouth, there being a narrowing such as would cause audible friction. According to the position of the highest point of the tongue, vowels can be classified into front vowels, central vowels, and back vowels.

b. Consonants

Consonant may be classified into voice consonant and voiceless consonant. A voiced consonant is a sound produced when the vocal cords are vibrating. While, voiceless consonants is a sound made with no vibration of the vocal cord (Dale and Poem, 2005:116).

According to Baker (2005:24) consonants is a sound, voiced and voiceless, in which the air stream is obstructed through a narrowing or complete closure of the mouth passage in the other words. The sound of a consonant depends on whether or not the vocal cords vibrate, where and how it is formed.

c. Diphthongs

Jones (2002: 22) says diphthong is when the sound is made by gliding from one vowel position to another. Diphthongs are represented phonetically by sequences of two letters, the first showing the starting point and the second indicating the direction of movement. He defines a diphthong as an independent vowel-glide not containing within itself either a ‘peak’ or ‘trough’ of prominence. What is meant by vowel glide is that speech-organs start in the position of one vowel and move in the direction of another vowel. What is mean by ‘independent’ is that the glide is expressly made, and is not merely unavoidable concomitant of sounds preceding and following. Diphthongs are classified into three, namely raising/ closing diphthong, falling students and centring diphthongs.

d. Length Rhythm

The length or quality of a sound is the length of time during which it is held on continuously in a given word or phrase (Jones,2002 : 232). Rhythm is represented by means of musical notation.

The term ‘lenght’ refers to the period of time during which a sound is produced in a given utterance (Ramelan,2004:29)

e. Stress

Stress is the degree of force with which a sound or syllable is uttered (Jones,1987:245). Stress [ ‘ ], moderate stress (no symbol ),and weak stress [ , ], for example in the word ‘unimportant’ [ Λn,Im’pכ:tn ].

Ramelan(2004:25) states that ‘stress’ meant the degree of force or loudness with which a syllable is pronounced so as to give it prominence. He said there three degrees of stress can be observed in English:

1) Strong or primary stress

2) Medium or secondary stress

3) Weak stress

As a general rule it may be said that the relative stress of the words in a sentence depends on their importance. The more important a word is, the stonger its stress will be. The more important words are usually the nouns, adjectives, demonstratives and interogative pronouns, principal verbs, and adverbs.

f. Intonation

According to Ramelan(2004:32)intonation may also be called the melody of speech. The proper use of intonation is very important since it makes speech more lively and interesting to the hearer.Intonation is divided into at least two kinds namely : rising intonation and falling intonation.
 

about teaching method



Teaching methods are most articulated to answering the questions ehrn we are teaching “what is the purpose of education?” and then “what are the best way of achieve these purpose?”. Many prehistory of education methods were largely informal, and consider of children imitating or modelling their behaviour on that of their elders, learning through observation and play. In this sense , the children are the student, and the elder is a teacher. So teacher create the course material to be tought and then enforces it.

Methods is a part of teaching component which is stated by important position besides purpose of teaching, teacher , students, environment, and evaluation (Thoifuri,2008:55). Thoifury adds that teaching process is not easy to be succesfull if the teacher cannot make a suitable method in teaching process. According to Hornby(1995:735), method is a way of doing somethink. He sttate that method are order efficient habits. Thoifuri suggest that methods are derived from Greek language that is “meta”, it means pass through or exeed; and “hados”, this word means a way. So, method is the way which is used by a teacher in transfering knowledge to the student so that they will get the purpose.


 Classification of teaching methods

Teaching methods are classified into conventional methods and inconventional methods (Thoifuri,2008:59): here are the lisi of conventional teaching methods.

Conventional methods
Conventional methods is ussualy used by a teacher commonly or offten called traditional methods . They are :

a) Group work

Group work method is a method where the student are collected based on their ability.

b) Exercise method

Is a method oriented for the students to do much exercise. So the students will get a higher skill from their learning.

c) Discussion method


This method is a way of teaching learning process which is prepare by a teacher gives a chance for the students to doing scientific discussion to collect the arguments. And then from many argument are they, the student make a conclution, and arrangeany alternative way to solves the problem.

d) Speech method

This one is a method which is used to transfering the material exeeds talking using the mouth to the students.

e) Modelling method
This last method is used to realized the purpose of teaching that gives a good model to giving for the students. So every student can develop the mentality and personality.
 
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